As I’ve started to write about Cryptographic Hash Functions I’ve recognized, that it’s might be important to have a clear understanding of the cryptography basics at all. Hash function is one of the important cryptography building blocks, but let me first go a step back and draw the overall picture…
Let’s recap what the main goals of using cryptography in IT systems are:
- Authentication - Receiving party can verify the source of the message. For example verifying the authenticity of a website with a digital certificate.
- Integrity - Here protecting information from being modified by unauthorized parties.
- Confidentiality - More commonly, the biggest concern is to keep information private. Cryptographic systems were originally developed to function in this capacity.
- Non-repudiation - It provides protection against denial of one of the entities involved in the communication. Often, cryptographic tools are required to prove that a unique user has made a transaction request. It must not be possible for the user to refute his or her actions.
In cryptography, a cryptosystem is a suite of cryptographic algorithms needed to implement a particular security service. Typically, a cryptosystem consists of algorithms for key generation, encryption, and decryption. Encryption and decryption algorithms referred to as ciphers.
A cipher (or cipher) is an algorithm (Series of well-defined steps - a procedure) for performing encryption or decryption. Such procedure is depending on a piece of auxiliary information, called a key. In the end without the knowledge of the key, it should be unfeasible to decrypt the resulting ciphertext into readable plaintext.
Ciphers can be categorized in the following way:
Symmetric vs Asymmetric
- symmetric key algorithms When the same key is used for both encryption and decryption,
- asymmetric key algorithms When there is a key-pair (mathematically connected) where one key is used for encryption and another for decryption and vice versa.
Block vs Stream
- block ciphers work on blocks of symbols usually of a fixed size
- stream ciphers work on on a continuous stream of symbols.
If you are going to explore cryptography literature, you’ll find often a mention of a
nonce without further explanation. But in fact following is meant:
A cryptographic nonce is an arbitrary number that may only be used once. It is often a random or pseudo-random number issued in an authentication protocol to ensure that old communications cannot be reused in replay attacks.
Because every topic may have many many details, I prefer to split them up into separate Articles you can find listed below